The enterprises of the State Concern "Ukroboronprom", which are part of the cluster of radiolocation, radio communication and special instrument engineering, are responsible for one of the main components of the combat capability of Ukrainian troops, i.e., the ability to locate the enemy in advance and to guide destruction means.
The supply and development of modern radar stations, various digital systems, which are the basis of automated command systems, modernization of the artillery and air force components – these were the tasks carried out by 23 cluster enterprises in 2018.
Anti-aircraft and coastal defense
Effective air defense is based on the ability to detect a target and destroy it even before it can open fire. It is precisely for this purpose that such Ukrboronprom enterprises as "Research and Production Complex "Iskra" are developing and supplying modern radar stations capable of detecting air targets at a distance of hundreds of kilometers.
This year, Zaporizhzhya "Iskra", which is the cluster leading enterprise, manufactured and repaired radar stations, which are designed for airspace control and guiding air defense capabilities. A prime example is 79К6 "Pelican", which is used by the Armed Forces of Ukraine and detects air targets at a distance up to 400 km.
At the same time, Zaporizhzhya specialists carried out work toward integration of all radar stations into the guidance system of S-300, which is one of the longest-range anti-aircraft missile complexes used by Ukrainian troops. This allows for the creation of a continuous radar space where each radar station transmits information on targets through secure digital communication channels.
In its turn, in 2018 "Balakliyskyi Repair Plant" carried out repairs of anti-aircraft complexes, including ZRGK "Tunhuska", ZSU-23-4 "Shylka" and ZRK "Osa". Thanks to this enterprise, the Ukrainian Army received more than ten such machines. Given the work carried out by "Vizar" and "Ukroboronservis", which belong to other clusters of the Concern, it made it possible to ensure the combat capability of the anti-aircraft component at all levels, starting from the long-range S-300 and ending in short- and small-range anti-aircraft capabilities.
In addition to anti-aircraft capabilities, radar stations are actively used in other areas too, for example, in coastal defense. The State Enterprise "Scientific and Research Institute for Radar Systems "Kvant-Radiolokatsiya" actively supplies troops with the all-round mobile radar station "Delta".
It automatically detects and tracks aircraft and helicopters, as well as ground and surface targets with an accuracy of up to 20 meters at a distance of up to 96 kilometers, as well as registers selected target trajectories and transfers data thereon to relevant combat units. It is these radar stations that are installed on Ukrainian warships and at coastal defense facilities.
The cluster of radiolocations, radio communication and special instrument-building includes a unique Ukrainian enterprise – "Shepetivskyi Repair Plant". It is this enterprise that is responsible for modernizing and repairing multiple-launch artillery and multiple rocket launcher systems.
In 2018, the Plant manufactured more than 70 combat vehicles, including the self-propelled artillery units "Hvozdyka" and "Akatsiya", multiple rocket launchers "Urahan" and "Smerch". To expand production, the Plant renovated an old workshop which was built in 1939 at its own expense.
The "Shepetivskyi Repair Plant" is also working on the "Vilkha" Project. It has carried out in-depth modernization of "Hrad", which was renamed into "Berest". One of the features of the new machine is the digital fire control system, which allows the crew, without leaving the cabin, to prepare themselves for shooting, in particular, for topogeodetic survey.
New digital technologies integrate "Berest" into the information exchange system on the battlefield. Due to this, a multiple rocket launcher system crew in a real time format gets the enemy exact coordinates, which come from drones in a processed format, counter-battery radar stations, as well as from other surveillance systems. Such integration increases the accuracy and efficiency of fire several times.
At the same time, for the purposes of counter-battery fighting, the "Scientific and Production Complex Iskra" developed the 1L220UK station, which was demonstrated during the military parade on August 24.
The 1L220UK counter-battery radar captures the exact location of enemy guns, mortars, multiple rocket launcher systems, anti-aircraft rocket systems and tactical missiles at a distance of several dozen kilometers. In addition, 1L220UK keeps track of airspace and is capable of detecting enemy unmanned aircraft.
For artillery guidance and intelligence acquisition purposes, the Ukrainian army makes intensive use of the "Spectator" drone, which was developed in close cooperation between the NTU "Sikorskyi KPI" and Koroliov OJSC "Meridian".
Currently, the troops are supplied with its upgraded version "Spectator-M", which is equipped with modern video and thermal imaging cameras allowing it to track a land plot up to 50 kilometers long at an altitude of up to 2 thousand meters.
However, in 2018 Koroliov OJSC "Meridian" continued upgrading the drone by switching to the Spectator-M1 testing. This version has less weight, longer flight time, a new thermal imager with increased viewing angles and a new control station.
In addition, experts reduced noise generated by an electric motor, which has made this unmanned aircraft the least noisy among craft of this class. Furthermore, they integrated the automatic target coordinate determination system, which automatically converts the coordinates of detected objects into the SK-42 system, which is used by artillery to control fire.
Another unique Ukrainian enterprise is Izyum Instrument-Making Plant, which manufactures sights for high-precision missile weapons. This enterprise has a completely closed cycle of production, ranging from the manufacture of special glass to the production of digital sights for the anti-tank complexes such as "Stuhna-P", "Korsar" and "Barier".
This year, due to efforts of Izyum-based specialists, the DKKB "Luch" sent hundreds of complexes with thousands of missiles attached to them thereby greatly enhancing the anti-tank defense of our units, which on a permanent basis receive long-range and high precision destruction means.
In addition, this year Izyum Instrument-Making Plant came up with an entirely new initiative – the OSSN-I optic-target station. This station is equipped with powerful optics, a thermal imager, a laser control channel and a range finder. Such instrumentation makes it possible to not only locate targets, but also to home high-precision weapons which use different types of guidance onto them.
Despite such powerful equipment, the diameter of the station is only 43 cm, which makes it possible to install it not only on helicopters, but also on unmanned aerial vehicles. In addition, an optical-aiming station stabilized in all planes can be used in armored vehicles and, after making a number of design changes, in marine facilities.
Thus, the invention of the "Izium Instrument-Making Plant" may be used for multiple purposes, which guarantees in large-scale production conditions a significant reduction of its cost.
Troop command and control
Reliable troop command and control, which is achieved via navigation and communications facilities is crucial for effective combat operations. According to NATO standards, the coordination of all units and receipt of operational up-to-date information on allies and targets are the cornerstones of modern military operations.
That is why "Ukroboronprom" enterprises are developing elements of the automatic troop control system. One such element is satellite navigation means which are being developed and mass-produced by "Orizon Navigation". The products of this state-owned enterprise are installed on all planes, ships, tanks and other armored vehicles, and are also included in the serviceman’s personal protection system. In 2018, the enterprise supplied more than 500 such systems and facilities.
Improving troop command and control is one of the tasks of Kyiv enterprise NTK "Impulse", which continues serial production of SA-10U command and staff vehicles currently used for ensuring communication and coordination of units by the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
SA-10U is a special vehicle that ensures a secure communication within a unit at the operational and tactical level. It is completely protected from enemy electronic warfare means, uses various communication channels, including satellite communications. The SA-10U developers paid special attention to digital equipment by developing and implementing special software that ensures transmission of protected information between units in field conditions and in conditions of active enemy countermeasures.
Thus, in 2018, 23 enterprises of the cluster of radiolocations, radio communications and special instrument-building made a huge contribution to the development of Ukraine’s defense capability.